This online book study addresses RTI concerns and vertical alignment. Why don't our students know their multiplication facts in fourth, fifth, or even tenth grade? Why do they have so much trouble with fractions? The fact that this happens in so many classrooms across the country tells us that the failure lies not with the students or teachers, but in how mathematics has been taught, year after year, with the best of intentions. Students come to classrooms fearing and avoiding math and, worse, thinking they are not good at it. Students learn to disengage their reasoning - and even distrust it. Making Number Talks Matter is about helping students take back the authority of their own reasoning through a short, fifteen-minute routine called Number Talks, in which they reason mentally with numbers. This book will help you, their teacher, learn how to facilitate this routine so that, over time, students develop a strong sense of the meaning of quantities and operations while gaining proficiency with mathematical practices. You will read and post reflections for each chapter; lead and reflect on 4 age-appropriate number talks with your students. Your students will submit a pre- and post-survey (anonymously) and provide three (3) reflections on number talks. Student surveys and reflections are designed to take 1-5 minutes to complete. Assignments are designed so that time will be spent learning and implementing what you have learned, not focusing on minute details. Expect to spend 1-2 hours each week reading and responding online. Upon full completion of this course, participants will be awarded 16 ADE-approved PD hours.